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From: Alan Schmitt <alan.schmitt@polytechnique.org>
To: "lwn" <lwn@lwn.net>, "cwn"  <cwn@lists.idyll.org>, caml-list@inria.fr
Subject: [Caml-list] Attn: Development Editor, Latest OCaml Weekly News
Date: Tue, 29 Jun 2021 14:24:25 +0200
Message-ID: <87a6n8g8p2.fsf@m4x.org> (raw)

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Hello

Here is the latest OCaml Weekly News, for the week of June 22 to 29,
2021.

Table of Contents
─────────────────

wasicaml - a code emitter for OCaml targeting WebAssembly
opam 2.1.0~rc2
Set up OCaml 2.0.0-beta2
Any OCaml bindings to Apache Arrow?
Compiler engineer for OCaml and WebAssembly, Germany
v3.0.0 release of reparse, reparse-lwt, reparse-lwt-unix
Progress 0.2.0
http-multipart-formdata v2.0.0
Old CWN


wasicaml - a code emitter for OCaml targeting WebAssembly
═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://sympa.inria.fr/sympa/arc/caml-list/2021-06/msg00017.html>


Gerd Stolpmann announced
────────────────────────

  I'd like to announce a new project to develop a code generator that
  emits WebAssembly:

  <https://github.com/remixlabs/wasicaml>

  With the support of RemixLabs I could already create a very first
  version that takes the OCaml bytecode as input and translates it to
  WebAssembly.  While this approach probably doesn't lead to the fastest
  code, it is easy to accomplish, and it demonstrates the challenge (and
  already shows how to solve many of the part problems along the road).

  To be precisely, the target of the translator is wasm32-unknown-wasi,
  i.e.  the WASI ABI. This ABI is still in early development, but
  provides already the syscalls (or better, host calls) to access files,
  to get the current time, and to read the environment. This is almost
  enough to run a compiler - I only had to add system() so that ocamlc
  can start external preprocessors.  Also, due to the fact that the
  current wasm implementations still lack exception handling, I had to
  assume the presence of a host emulation of exceptions (which is easy
  to provide if the host environment is Javascript, but not necessarily
  for other environments).

  The translator takes the OCaml bytecode as input, i.e. you first
  create an excecutable

  ┌────
  │ $ ocamlc -o myexec ...
  └────

  and then make wasm out of it:

  ┌────
  │ $ wasicaml -o myexec.wasm myexec
  └────

  If you omit the .wasm suffix, wasicaml will put a preamble in front of
  the wasm code that starts the execution:

  ┌────
  │ $ wasicaml -o myexec_wasm myexec
  │ $ ./myexec_wasm
  └────

  Because of this trick, many problems of cross-compiling can be
  avoided.

  You may ask what the benefits of yet another "Web" language are. We
  already have two emitters targeting Javascript - isn't that enough?
  Well, two answers here.

  First, WASI is a proper LLVM target. Because of this, you can link
  code from other languages with your executable (e.g. C or Rust). So
  you are not limited to OCaml but can use any language that also
  targets the WASI ABI. E.g. you can do

  ┌────
  │ $ wasicaml -o myexec.wasm myexec -ccopt -lfoo
  └────

  to also link in libfoo.a (which must also be compiled to wasm). So it
  is multi-lingual from the beginning.

  Second, WebAssembly can be used outside the web, too. WASI targets
  more the command-line, and server plugins, and generally any
  OS-independent environments. For example, imagine you have an Electron
  app with a great UI, but for some special functionality you need to
  include some OCaml code, too. You don't want to give up the
  OS-independence, and WASI gives you now a natural option to add the
  OCaml code. And you still have access to the filesystem without
  hassle. - Another example is edge computing, i.e. when the cloud is
  extended by computers outside the data center, and the code should be
  in a form so that it can be run on as many platforms as possible. -
  All in all, WASI plays well when you need to combine OS-independence
  with a classic way of organizing the code as command or as server
  function, and you also need predictable performance.

  The challenge of translating OCaml to wasm is mainly the garbage
  collector.  Wasm doesn't permit many of the tricks ocamlopt is using
  to know in which memory (or register) locations OCaml values are
  stored. In wasm, there are no registers but the closest vehicle are
  local variables. Now, it is not possible to scan these variables from
  the GC function, making it practically impossible to put OCaml values
  there while a function is called that might trigger a GC. There is
  also no really cheap way of obtaining a stack descriptor.

  Wasicaml inherits the stack from the bytecode interpreter and uses it
  as its own shadow stack for OCaml values. As wasicaml bases on the
  bytecode representation of the code, the bytecode instructions already
  ensure that values always live in this stack when the GC might
  run. Wasicaml additionally tries to identify values that don't need
  this special treatment (like ints and bools) and that are preferably
  stored in local variables, giving the wasm executor freedom to put
  these into registers or other high-speed locations. (Unfortunately,
  most of the type information is already erased in the bytecode, and
  this is definitely one of the deficiencies of the bytecode approach.)

  In order to maximize the performance, it is probably best to avoid the
  stack whenever possible. The current approach of transforming the
  bytecode hasn't brought to an end yet with respect to such
  optimizations. For example, there could be more analyses that figure
  out when GC runs are actually possible and when it is safe to use
  local variables.

  Another problem of the bytecode basis is that all function calls are
  indirect, preventing the wasm executor from inlining functions.

  As a project, I'd like to see wasicaml progressing in two directions.
  First, make the current approach as good as possible - although basing
  it on the bytecode representation has its downsides, it is easy to
  understand and it is possible to figure out what the necessary
  ingredients for fast code are. Second, get an idea where a possible
  real wasm backend would fit into the OCaml compiler (maybe it is c–
  but maybe this doesn't give us much and you start better with lambda).

  Anyway, welcome to the new world of WebAssembly!

  Gerd

  PS. If you are interested in WebAssembly and like to work with me on
  another Wasm port for some time, there is a position:
  <https://www.mixtional.de/recruiting/2021-01/index.html>

  PPS. Wasicaml is a project of Figly, Inc., commonly known as
  RemixLabs, developing a reactive low-code and code collaboration
  platform.  <https://remixlabs.com/>


opam 2.1.0~rc2
══════════════

  Archive: <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-opam-2-1-0-rc2/8042/1>


David Allsopp announced
───────────────────────

  The opam team has great pleasure in announcing opam 2.1.0~rc2!

  The focus since beta4 has been preparing for a world with more than
  one released version of opam (i.e.  2.0.x and 2.1.x). The release
  candidate extends CLI versioning further and, under the hood, includes
  a big change to the opam root format which allows new versions of opam
  to indicate that the root may still be read by older versions of the
  opam libraries. A plugin compiled against the 2.0.9 opam libraries
  will therefore be able to read information about an opam 2.1 root
  (plugins and tools compiled against 2.0.8 are unable to load opam
  2.1.0 roots).

  Please do take this release candidate for a spin! It is available in
  the Docker images at ocaml/opam on [Docker Hub] as the opam-2.1
  command (or you can `sudo ln -f /usr/bin/opam-2.1 /usr/bin/opam' in
  your `Dockerfile' to switch to it permanently). The release candidate
  can also be tested via our installation script (see the [wiki] for
  more information).

  Thank you to anyone who noticed the unannounced first release
  candidate and tried it out. Between tagging and what would have been
  announcing it, we discovered an issue with upgrading local switches
  from earlier alpha/beta releases, and so fixed that for this second
  release candidate.

  Assuming no showstoppers, we plan to release opam 2.1.0 next week. The
  improvements made in 2.1.0 will allow for a much faster release cycle,
  and we look forward to posting about the 2.2.0 plans soon!


[Docker Hub] <https://hub.docker.com/r/ocaml/opam/tags>

[wiki]
<https://github.com/ocaml/opam/wiki/How-to-test-an-opam-feature#from-a-tagged-release-including-pre-releases>


Set up OCaml 2.0.0-beta2
════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-set-up-ocaml-2-0-0-beta2/8046/1>


Sora Morimoto announced
───────────────────────

  This release includes changes to address a corner case primarily
  related to multicore OCaml.

  <https://github.com/ocaml/setup-ocaml/releases/tag/v2.0.0-beta2>


Any OCaml bindings to Apache Arrow?
═══════════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/any-ocaml-bindings-to-apache-arrow/8047/2>


UnixJunkie asked and Laurent Mazare announced
─────────────────────────────────────────────

        Looks interesting:

        <https://arrow.apache.org/>

        <https://arrow.apache.org/overview/>

  I've put together some simple [ocaml-arrow] library. It works
  reasonably well and is quite battle tested but definitely needs a bit
  of cleanup as the bits under src/ are deprecated in favor of the ones
  under c_api/. There is also a ppx to automatically convert ocaml
  records to/from arrow. Some examples using this can be seen in the
  [tests directory].

  If there is some interest, I can certainly push up on cleaning this
  and make an actual opam package.


[ocaml-arrow] <https://github.com/LaurentMazare/ocaml-arrow>

[tests directory]
<https://github.com/LaurentMazare/ocaml-arrow/blob/master/c_api/tests/ppx.ml>


Compiler engineer for OCaml and WebAssembly, Germany
════════════════════════════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/compiler-engineer-for-ocaml-and-webassembly-germany/8053/1>


Gerd Stolpmann announced
────────────────────────

  We are developing a compiler for a no-code platform that translates
  our DSL to bytecode and/or WebAssembly. The language is largely of
  functional type but is also able to manage state with a spreadsheet
  model, allowing reactive programming without having to resort to
  libraries. The language is statically typed using a Hindley-Milner
  type checker. The compiler is primarily written in OCaml. Other
  languages of our platform are Go, C, Elm, and Javascript.

  We are looking for a compiler engineer with skills in code generation
  for WebAssembly:

  • Translation of an intermediate representation to WebAssembly
  • Writing runtimes and SDKs targeting WebAssembly
  • Code optimization

  See the full ad here:
  <https://www.mixtional.de/recruiting/2021-01/index.html>


v3.0.0 release of reparse, reparse-lwt, reparse-lwt-unix
════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-v3-0-0-release-of-reparse-reparse-lwt-reparse-lwt-unix/8058/1>


Bikal Lem announced
───────────────────

  I am happy to announce v3.0.0 of `reparse' - an OCaml library for
  constructing various types of parsers in OCaml.

  The release follows a complete overhaul of the internal working of the
  library to achieve the following goals:

  1. Allow construction of efficient, zero-copy parsers. See [String
     parser for example]. The library provides a [Make functor]
     parametrised over a `Promise' and a `Input' type allowing you
     control over both parser memory allocation and copying.

  2. Support usage of async libraries - lwt and async. Following the
     first point the library can now be used together with `lwt' and/or
     `async'. A lwt parse - for example - can now be used seamlessly
     with your other lwt code. The integration is seamless.

  3. Provide `Make_buffered' functor to produce parsers where the input
     type natively doesn't allow random read, for example sockets, lwt
     streams and channels. There is now two new supporting packages
     `reparse-lwt' which provides parsing from `char Lwt_stream.t'
     input type and `reparse-lwt-unix' which provides parsing from
     `Lwt_unix.file_descr' and ~Lwt_unix.input_channel' respectively.

  4. Provide `Make_unbuffered' functor to produce parsers where the
     input type natively supports random read, for example strings,
     bigstrings, bytes.

  5. Introduce function `unsafe_any_char' to allow efficient
     (zero-copy?) parsing.

  6. Prune dependencies by removing `base'.

  P.S. The documentation is bit behind in this release so please bear
  with me while work through the issues in the coming days.

  [Reparse repo]


[String parser for example]
<https://github.com/lemaetech/reparse/blob/master/lib/reparse.mli#L1237>

[Make functor]
<https://github.com/lemaetech/reparse/blob/master/lib/reparse.mli#L1230>

[Reparse repo]
<https://github.com/lemaetech/reparse/blob/master/lib/reparse.ml>


Progress 0.2.0
══════════════

  Archive: <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-progress-0-2-0/8063/1>


Craig Ferguson announced
────────────────────────

  I'm pleased to announce the 0.2.0 release of [`Progress'], now
  available via Opam.

  <https://aws1.discourse-cdn.com/standard11/uploads/ocaml/original/2X/7/727d878b6d17f3c48e6946f4df424bcc59938da3.png>

  `Progress' is an OCaml library for defining and using progress
  bars. It has the following features:

  • allows user-defined progress bar layouts;
  • supports rendering multiple progress bars simultaneously;
  • dynamically responds to changes in terminal size;
  • supports interleaving logging with progress bar rendering.

  This second release contains a much-improved DSL for specifying
  progress bars, alongside improvements and extensions to the rendering
  logic. The bars in the screenshot above are defined as follows:

  ┌────
  │ let bar ~color ~total =
  │   let open Progress.Line in
  │   list
  │     [ spinner ~color:(Progress.Color.ansi ~green) ()
  │     ; brackets (elapsed ())
  │     ; bar ~color total
  │     ; bytes
  │     ; parens (const "eta: " ++ eta total)
  │     ]
  └────

  It also comes with more complete [documentation] and many more
  [examples], including:

  • a Cargo-like progress bar w/ logging of intermediate results:

    <https://aws1.discourse-cdn.com/standard11/uploads/ocaml/optimized/2X/4/4b148999f7b6029ac0155b049b6a7cf1fa8b40f1_2_1380x500.png>

  • a Yarn-like stack of spinners:

    <https://aws1.discourse-cdn.com/standard11/uploads/ocaml/original/2X/6/67ccf011a403a4c082829f69d5a609b4c0c23f6e.png>

  • a showcase of various progress bar styles:

    <https://aws1.discourse-cdn.com/standard11/uploads/ocaml/optimized/2X/d/d4df4a2df07fd161982243251fbee56d52a4afbf_2_1034x538.png>


  The changelog is [here] and the API documentation is [here]. The
  library is not yet feature-complete, but should still be reasonably
  useful :-) Happy hacking!


[`Progress'] <https://github.com/craigfe/progress>

[documentation]
<https://craigfe.github.io/progress/progress/Progress/index.html>

[examples] <https://github.com/CraigFe/progress/tree/main/examples>

[here]
<https://github.com/CraigFe/progress/blob/0.2.0/CHANGES.md#020-2021-06-26>

[here] <https://craigfe.github.io/progress/progress/Progress/index.html>


http-multipart-formdata v2.0.0
══════════════════════════════

  Archive:
  <https://discuss.ocaml.org/t/ann-http-multipart-formdata-v2-0-0/8064/1>


Bikal Lem announced
───────────────────

  I am pleased to announce v2.0.0 release of
  `http-multpart-formdata'. This release departs from previous in-memory
  representation of http multipart forms to a streaming, memory
  efficient representation. The new streaming mechanism should help when
  processing larg file uploads in your OCaml web applications.

  1. [httpaf sample web app]
  2. [http-multipart-formdata repo]


[httpaf sample web app]
<https://github.com/lemaetech/http-multipart-formdata/blob/master/examples/multipart_httpaf.ml>

[http-multipart-formdata repo]
<https://github.com/lemaetech/http-multipart-formdata>


Old CWN
═══════

  If you happen to miss a CWN, you can [send me a message] and I'll mail
  it to you, or go take a look at [the archive] or the [RSS feed of the
  archives].

  If you also wish to receive it every week by mail, you may subscribe
  [online].

  [Alan Schmitt]


[send me a message] <mailto:alan.schmitt@polytechnique.org>

[the archive] <https://alan.petitepomme.net/cwn/>

[RSS feed of the archives] <https://alan.petitepomme.net/cwn/cwn.rss>

[online] <http://lists.idyll.org/listinfo/caml-news-weekly/>

[Alan Schmitt] <https://alan.petitepomme.net/>


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